Malware is the collective term for malicious software developed to exploit, lock, and destroy files, computers, devices, and networks. Cybercriminals use malware to steal private data, which they can sell on the dark web, or commit fraud and extortion. Do you know enough about different types of malware to detect and stop them? Take this short quiz to find out.
1. Dubbed Sunburst, this malware was used by nation-state actors to infiltrate SolarWinds’ security mechanisms.
b. Buffer overflow
d. Digital signature
2. Which malicious program is designed to appear legitimate and often used to steal private information in payment and banking systems?
a. Trojan horse
d. Social engineering
3. Which of the following is a controversial program that was developed to spread across networks to distribute patches for known security vulnerabilities?
a. Patch management
b. Ethical worm
4. The name-and-shame tactic made famous in 2019 by the Maze gang is commonly used in what type of cyberattack?
a. Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS)
b. Port scan
c. Logic bomb
5. What is the name of a self-replicating malware capable of spreading to other devices without user interaction?
c. Hybrid virus
d. Malicious link
Cybercriminals use malware to steal private data, which they can sell on the dark web, or commit fraud and extortion.
6. Which of the following is a collection of software tools that, once installed, can remotely access and control a computer or network system?
b. Penetration test
d. Logic bomb
7. A hybrid virus can infect system sectors and files and displays which of the following characteristics?
a. System infectors
b. Macro viruses
c. File infectors
d. All of the above
8. _____________ can be used legally in trial versions of software to show ads while other programs are running. But it can be categorized as _____________ if it records users’ browsing habits and information without consent.
a. Adware; spyware
b. Adware; ransomware
c. Shareware; malware
d. Social engineering; malvertising
9. Which statement is NOT true about a keylogger?
a. Physical access to a target's device is needed for installation.
b. Some keyloggers are hardware-based.
c. It can monitor and record keystrokes on a keyboard.
d. It can be detected by task managers.
10. Phishing, vishing, spear phishing, watering hole attacks, and scareware are all types of ____________.
b. Social engineering
c. Insider threats
How well did you do? Check the correct answers below to find out.
1. Answer: C
Developers and cybercriminals can use a backdoor to bypass cybersecurity measures to access a system. The SolarWinds attack was caused by a backdoor called Sunburst, which was hidden in SolarWinds’ Orion software updates.
2. Answer: A
A Trojan horse is a type of malware that is designed to appear legitimate to avoid detection. Common signs of a Trojan horse include abnormal computer activity and unexplained changes to computer settings.
3. Answer: B
Unlike most malware, an ethical worm spreads through a network to deliver security patches to address vulnerabilities. Many cybersecurity specialists deem it controversial due to its potential to be a threat.
4. Answer: D
Cybercriminals commonly use name-and-shame tactics in ransomware attacks, whereby hackers publicly threaten their victims to compel them to pay a ransom.
5. Answer: A
A worm is malware capable of spreading and self-replicating without any commands from malware authors or human intervention.
6. Answer: C
Rootkits are bundled tools that, when installed in a computer, allow attackers to create a backdoor to a user's system. This leaves cybercriminals free to infect the network with other forms of malware.
7. Answer: D
A hybrid virus incorporates the characteristics of system infectors, file infectors, and macro viruses to counteract removal efforts and maximize the damage it can cause.
8. Answer: A
Third parties use adware to collect user and browsing information to display a customized pop-up banner while the program is running. When the data is used or sold without the user's knowledge or consent, it is then classified as spyware.
9. Answer: D
There are various types of hardware and software-based keyloggers with different capabilities, making it impossible to detect them using your computer’s Task Manager alone. Using malware scanners, endpoint protection, and firewalls can help spot keyloggers and eliminate them from infected computers.
10. Answer: B
Social engineering is a method used by cybercriminals to disguise themselves as trusted organizations or individuals to trick their victims into falling for phishing and similar scams.
Knowing the different types of malware and how they work will give you a better understanding of cybercrime tools, trends, and tactics, thus enabling you to better protect your business against cyberattacks.
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